Freedom and Control: On the Modality of Free Will
by Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum
Free will is a problem of modality, hampered by a commitment to modal dualism: the view that
there is only necessity and pure contingency. If we have necessity, then things couldn't have been
otherwise, against the Principle of Alternate Possibilities (AP). If there is complete contingency, then
the agent seems to have no control over her actions, against the principle of Ultimate Authorship
(UA). There is a third modality in natural causal processes, however. AP and UA can be reconciled
if we allow both causation and agency to involve the dispositional modality.